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MySQL主从同步

Mysql Txun 198℃ 0评论

环境:

Mater:   CentOS7.1  5.5.52-MariaDB  192.168.108.133

Slave:   CentOS7.1  5.5.52-MariaDB  192.168.108.140

1.导出主服务数据,将主备初始数据同步

master:

//从master上导出需要同步的数据库信息
mysqldump -u*** -p*** --database test > test.sql
//将master上的备份信息传输到slave上
scp /root/test.sql root@192.168.108.140:/opt/

slave:

//进入slave的数据库
mysql -u*** -p***
//清空test数据库
drop database test
//导入master的test数据库信息
source /opt/test.sql

2.配置master和slave上的mysql数据库

master:

//修改master的my.cnf文件
vim /etc/my.cnf
//master配置如下,在[mysqld]下添加如下配置
#log-bin
server-id          =   1
log_bin            =   master-bin
expire_logs_days   =   10
max_binlog_size    =   100M
binlog-do_db       =   test
binlog_ignore_db   =   mysql
//重启mysql数据库
service mysqld restart
//如果安装的是mariadb可以重启mariadb
systemctl restart mariadb.service

slave:

//修改slave的my.cnf文件
vim /etc/my.cnf
//slave配置如下,在[mysqld]下添加如下配置
server-id         =   2
//重启mysql数据库
service mysqld restart
//如果安装的是mariadb可以重启mariadb
systemctl restart mariadb.service

简单说明一下参数配置,保证主备server-id唯一。在master上需要开启mysql的binlog,log_bin=master_bin,指定binlog文件的名称。

3.创建一个复制用户,具有replication slave 权限,能保证slave能把master的数据同步过去

master:

grant replication slave on *.* to 'replication'@'192.168.108.140' identified by 'replication';

4.获取master的binlog位置

master:

//进入mysql数据库
mysql -u*** -p***
//设置读锁
flush tables with read lock;
//获取mysql的binlog文件信息和偏移量
show master status;
+-------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
| File              | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB |
+-------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
| master-bin.000010 |     3713 | test         | mysql            |
+-------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
//解锁
unlock tables;

5.设置备端数据库

//进入mysql数据库
mysql -u*** -p***
//停止slave
stop slave;
//设置对应master的binlog信息
MariaDB [(none)]> change master to
    -> master_host='192.168.108.133',
    -> master_user='replication',
    -> master_password='replication',
    -> master_log_file='master-bin.000010',
    -> master_log_pos=3713;
//启动slave
start slave;

6.查看备端状态

MariaDB [(none)]> show slave status\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
               Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
                  Master_Host: 192.168.108.133
                  Master_User: replication
                  Master_Port: 3306
                Connect_Retry: 60
              Master_Log_File: master-bin.000010
          Read_Master_Log_Pos: 3881
               Relay_Log_File: mariadb-relay-bin.000002
                Relay_Log_Pos: 698
        Relay_Master_Log_File: master-bin.000010
             Slave_IO_Running: Yes
            Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
              Replicate_Do_DB:
          Replicate_Ignore_DB:
           Replicate_Do_Table:
       Replicate_Ignore_Table:
      Replicate_Wild_Do_Table:
  Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table:
                   Last_Errno: 0
                   Last_Error:
                 Skip_Counter: 0
          Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 3881
              Relay_Log_Space: 994
              Until_Condition: None
               Until_Log_File:
                Until_Log_Pos: 0
           Master_SSL_Allowed: No
           Master_SSL_CA_File:
           Master_SSL_CA_Path:
              Master_SSL_Cert:
            Master_SSL_Cipher:
               Master_SSL_Key:
        Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
                Last_IO_Errno: 0
                Last_IO_Error:
               Last_SQL_Errno: 0
               Last_SQL_Error:
  Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids:
             Master_Server_Id: 1
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

ERROR: No query specified

如果:Slave_IO_Running: Yes,Slave_SQL_Running: Yes则为配置成功,配置错误重复上面操作即可。如果解决不了可通过查看mysql日志分析处理。

vim /var/log/mariadb/mariadb.log

7.测试。其实测试没啥好写的,配置成功之后直接连到主从数据库,在master上改变表、字段、数据,slave会同步变化。

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